Day 2 :
- Cancer Diagnosis of Breast and monitoring | Breast Cancer Surgery |Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination | Pervasiveness and Trends of Breast Cancer | Risk Awareness about Breast Cancer
Location: Montreal, Canada
Cyrcadia Health, USA
Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Workinesh Daba Seboka has completed her B.Sc. at the age of 24 from Addis Ababa University, School of Nursing and Midwifery and Masters of Public Health in Reproductive and Family Health from Addis Ababa University School of Public Health. She is a Lecturer at Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing and Midwifery. She has six years of work experience and an expert midwife professional.
Background: In Ethiopia, breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. Level of knowledge, attitude, and practices of female university students about breast cancer and breast self-examination are not thoroughly examined.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices on breast cancer and breast self- examination of female students of the school of medicine and health science, Ambo University, 2017.
Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 204 female students selected from the school of medicine and health science of Ambo University. Excel generated a simple random sampling technique was employed to select the study population using a list of identification card number obtained from university registrar. A self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practices. SPSS version 23 was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests computed. All p-values <0.05 are set to determine the statistical association.
Result: Majority of the respondents were aged between 20-24 years with mean(±SD) age 21.5(±2.82) years. The largest ethnic group was Oromo (57.2%) and Orthodox (44.8%) was the dominant religion. Though the majority of the respondents (95.3%) had information on breast cancer, nearly half of the respondents do not know its hereditary and curable disease if detected early. About 77% of the respondents cited breast self-examination as a method of early detection of breast cancer. Nearly half of the respondents (49%) had good knowledge score and44.8%oftherespondentshada positive attitude towards breast self-examination. However, only one-third of the respondents had practiced the self-examination. In this study, significant association were observed between knowledge and attitude (χ2 =10.832, df =1, P=0.001), knowledge and practice (χ2 =28.528, df =1, P=0.000), and attitude and practice (χ2 =7.184, df =1, P=0.007).
Université de Montréal, Canada
Layane Duarte e Souza is a biologist with a background in breast cancer molecular biology. She has developed her career in breast cancer development and mechanisms of treatment resistance. Currently a Ph.D. student, she uncovers the tumor microenvironment of breast cancer to determine the T lymphocytes landscape in each molecular subtype. This immune population as well the classic breast cancer markers ER, PR and HER2 will be targeted through Raman spectroscopy multiplex imaging (herein described). This way, understanding the immune profile of each subtype will support the safe implementation of immunotherapy for breast cancer patients.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Canadian women. Currently, diagnosis is based on immunohistochemistry to identify cells expressing estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). This strategy targets cancer cells to determine the different molecular subtypes and requires one tissue section per marker. Until now, there is no option to detect all markers in the same section. Hence, determination of infiltrated lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment is a crucial step to guide immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. The single detection would be costly and delay the diagnosis, which impairs the application of tumor landscapes in clinics. The development of simultaneous detection in one tissue section is fundamental to achieve the safe implementation of personalized treatment. Raman spectroscopy imaging emerges as a choice for simultaneous detection of these markers. Raman probes based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have a unique spectrum, peaks widths of about 2 nm and non-bleaching signal. Each tube (~200nm length, 1.4nm diameter) contains internalized fluorescent dye (β-carotene, sexithiophene) emitting a specific Raman signature. The SWCNT were functionalized with an amine-polyethylene glycol-carboxylic acid (NH2-PEG-COOH) to allow the attachment of antibodies anti-ER and anti-HER2. Immunogold labeling confirmed the attachment of the antibody in the right orientation. Raman probes were used in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissues ER+ and HER2+; also in cell lines MCF-7 (ER+) and SKBR-3 (HER2+). IHC results using tissue and cell lines were compared to Raman imaging to evaluate probes sensitivity and specificity. Preliminary results show that anti-ER and anti-HER2 attach in both tissue and cells; however, the Raman signal is weak, compared to IHC. Currently, we are optimizing the Raman probe to obtain a better signal, as well as optimizing the Raman probe incubation with tissues.
Lumanze Clinic, Nigeria
Vitalis Ugochukwu Lumanze completed his M.Sc. in Medical Microbiology at the age of 29 years from Imo State University, Imo state Nigeria and before that he obtained his MBBS from Nnamdi Azikiwe University (UNIZIK) Awka, Anambra state Nigeria. he practiced for three (3) years Nnamdi Azikiwe University after which he left to establish Lumanze Clinic Ltd. He is the Medical Director of Lumanze Clinic Ltd, a leading hospital based in Lagos state Nigeria. He is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Pathology with University of Lagos, Lagos state Nigeria.
Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women and characterized by regional variations and late clinical presentation in low and middle-income countries including Nigeria.
Objectives: The purpose of this communication is to highlight the trends of breast cancer in a Nigerian population in a way to assess the effectiveness of various control measures including mammography instituted to control the disease.
Materials and Methods: Data on new cases of breast cancer registered annually at the cancer registry of the hospital over a period of 5-years were obtained and analyzed. Cancer reporting was voluntary hence data were collected by the active search. Sources of information included pathology laboratories, clinics, and wards, etc. Information abstracted on both patients and cancer included age, sex, bases of diagnosis, incidence date, topography, (primary sites), and morphology among others. Breast cancer was coded as C50, using International Classification of Diseases 10th edition (ICD 10th) of the World Health Organization.
Results: There were 568 new cases of breast cancer registered at the cancer registry during the 10-year period, comprising of 7(12.23%) males and 561(98.77%) females. The youngest patient aged 18 years while the oldest was 87 years and the peak age of incidence was the 5th decade. Incidence of breast cancer in male was low and occurred at a relatively older age group. We observed a steady rise in cases of breast cancer at our center.
Conclusion: The steady rise in breast cancer cases in the study population is an indication of inadequate or ineffective control measures to curtail the disease or due to the diversion of global attention to HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in the country. Therefore there is urgent need to step up activities through a non-governmental agency to promote advocacy, national policy on the training of personnel for clinical and self-breast examination, and nationwide screening program (mammography).
University of Bisha College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia
Elhadi Miskeen, MD, Assistance Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at University of Bisha College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia. Graduated from University of Gezira faculty of Medicine, Sudan in 2003. Awarded clinical MD in Obstetrics and Gynaecology from Sudan Medical Specialization Board. He has been actively involved in academic and clinical activities. His areas of interest include; safe motherhood and childhood, students support projects, medical education, social accountability, community empowerment, evidence-based medicine, medical education, and public health. He has carried out research and many publications in related fields with prizes and recognitions awarded. He has been involved in reviewing and editing of national and international medical journals with remarkable achievements.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the primary cause of mortality in women worldwide as well as in Saudi Arabia. Education of women is recommended for early detection and treatment.
Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, perception, and risk awareness about breast cancer among medical students at the University of Bisha, Southern Saudi Arabia.
Methodology: In this institutional-based cross-sectional study 391 medical students from the college of medicine and college of applied sciences were enrolled. The knowledge status was as well as perception were assessed. Likert scale of 1–5 was also employed to rate the responses of participants regarding perception related questions. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The mean age of the respondents was 20.1±1.5 SD. Male was 128 (32.1%) and female were 263 (67.3%). The mean total knowledge score of the students regarding general knowledge, risk factor and symptoms was 70.3%. Majority of the participants 308 (78.8%) believed that woman can enjoy a good quality of life after receiving the treatment for breast cancer. However, only 117 (29.9%) believed that treatments for breast cancer are more helpful to young people. Very few participants 56 (14.3%) believed that breast cancer treatment is embarrassing. However, 124 (31.7%) agreed that the treatment of breast cancer results in the loss of physical beauty. A significant difference in breast cancer knowledge in gender, the male had significantly less knowledge as compared to female (p=0.05).
Conclusion: The curriculum should be updated to increase breast cancer awareness among medical students. Breast cancer awareness campaign with stress the importance of early detection as a part of the social accountability of the university was recommended.